Mary K. Hudson

Academic Appointments

Eleanor and Kelvin Smith Distinguished Professor of Physics
Senior Research Associate, NCAR High Altitude Observatory

Space Physicist Mary K. Hudson, PhD UCLA 1974, is Professor of Physics and served for eight years as Chair of Physics and Astronomy at Dartmouth College. Hudson is currently a Co-Principal Investigator on two experiments on the recently launched NASA Van Allen Probes satellites designed to study earth's radiation belts, and on the Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) along with Professor Robyn Millan of the Physics and Astronomy Department. Hudson and her students study the weather patterns that originate from solar eruptions, following the energy and mass transfer through the interplanetary medium, all the way to the earth's ionosphere. Current areas of investigation include the evolution of the radiation belts; how the ionized particle outflow known as the solar wind and the magnetic field of the sun interact with the magnetic field of the earth, producing electrical currents in the ionosphere; and the effects of solar cosmic rays on radio communications near the earths poles. Professor Hudson is also funded through NSF to study solar energetic particles and their access to the atmosphere.

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Research Interests (see the Space Physics Home Page)

Along with students and postdoctoral research staff, Professor Hudson is modeling sudden changes in relativistic electron fluxes at and inside the 24-hr orbital period of many communication and navigation satellites, which are affected by global oscillations of the Earths magnetic field, associated with changes in solar wind conditions which have their origins at the sun. She has served as chair of the NSF Geospace Environment Modeling program and has been an Advanced Study Program Visitor and now Affiliate Scientist at the High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, and hosted by the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory and the University of Colorado Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics. She gave the American Geophysical Union Van Allen Lecture in 2006 and is the recipient of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics James A. Van Allen Space Environments Award for 2012. She co-chairs the Committee on Solar and Space Physics of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences.

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Curriculum Vitae
NCAR High Altitude Observatory, Boulder CO
HB 6127
Physics and Astronomy
B.S. U.C.L.A.
M.S. U.C.L.A.
Ph.D. U.C.L.A.

Selected Publications

D. N. Baker, S. G. Kanekal, V. C. Hoxie, M. G. Henderson, X. Li , H. E. Spence, S. R. Elkington, R. Friedel, J. Goldstein, M. K. Hudson, G. D. Reeves, R. M. Thorne, C. A. Kletzing, S. G. Claudepierre, A Long-lived Relativistic Electron Storage Ring Embedded within the Earth's Outer Van Allen Radiation Zone, Science (2013) DOI: 10.1126/science.1233518.

Brito, T. L. Woodger, M. Hudson, and R. Millan, Energetic radiation belt electron precipitation showing ULF modulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, 22, doi:10.1029/2012GL053790, 2012

Mary K. Hudson, Where did all the electrons go?, Nature Physics; 8 , 182, (2012)

Mary Hudson, Thiago Brito, Scot Elkington, Brian Kress, Zhao Li and Mike Wiltberger, Radiation belt 2D and 3D simulations for CIR-driven storms during Carrington Rotation 2068, J. Atmos. Solar Terres. Phys., 83, p. 51-62, 2012.

Claudepierre, S. G., M. K. Hudson, W. Lotko, J. G. Lyon, and R. E. Denton, Solar wind driving of magnetospheric ULF waves: Field line resonances driven by dynamic pressure fluctuations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A11202, doi:10.1029/2010JA015399, (2010).

Selesnick, R. S., M. K. Hudson, and B. T. Kress, Injection and loss of inner radiation belt protons during solar proton events and magnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A08211, doi:10.1029/2010JA015247, (2010).

Huang, C.-L., H. E. Spence, M. K. Hudson, and S. R. Elkington, Modeling radiation belt radial diffusion in ULF wave fields: 2. Estimating rates of radial diffusion using combined MHD and particle codes, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A06216, doi:10.1029/2009JA014918, (2010).

F. Chu, M. K. Hudson, P. Haines, and Y. Shprits, Dynamic modeling of radiation belt electrons by radial diffusion simulation for a 2 month interval following the 24 March 1991 storm injection J. Geophys. Res., 115, A3, doi:10.1029/2009JA014409, 2010.

Claudepierre S. G., M. Wiltberger, S. R. Elkington, W. Lotko, M. K. Hudson, Magnetospheric cavity modes driven by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13101, doi:10.1029/2009GL039045, 2009.

Mary K. Hudson, Brian T. Kress, Hans-R. Mueller, Jordan A. Zastrow and J. Bernard Blake, Relationship of the Van Allen radiation belts to solar wind drivers, REVIEW ARTICLE, J. Atmos. And Solar. Terr. Phys., Vol 70/5 pp 708-729, 10.1016/j.jastp.2007.11.003, 2008.

C. Cattell, J. R. Wygant, K. Goetz, K. Kersten, P. J. Kellogg, T. von Rosenvinge, S. D. Bale, I. Roth, M. Temerin, M. K. Hudson, R. A. Mewaldt, M. Wiedenbeck, M. Maksimovic, R. Ergun, M. Acuna, and C. T. Russell, Discovery of very large amplitude whistler-mode waves in Earth's radiation belts, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L01105, doi:10.1029/2007GL032009, 2008.

Young S. L., R. E. Denton, B. J. Anderson, M. K. Hudson (2008), Magnetic field line curvature induced pitch angle diffusion in the inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A03210, doi:10.1029/2006JA012133.

Kress, B. T., M. K. Hudson, M. D. Looper, J. G. Lyon, and C. C. Goodrich (2008), Global MHD Test Particle Simulations of Solar Energetic Electron Trapping in the Earth's Radiation Belts, J. of Atmospheric & Solar-Terrestial Physics Vol 70/5 pp 708-729, 10.1016/j.jastp.200711.003, 2008

Kress, B. T., M. K. Hudson, M. D. Looper, J Albert, J. G. Lyon, and C. C. Goodrich (2007), Global MHD test particle simulations of >10 MeV radiation belt electrons during storm sudden commencement, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A09215, doi:10.1029/2006JA012218.

Roth, I, M K Hudson, B T Kress and K L Perry, "Energetic Particle Measurements in the Magnetosphere and their Relationship to Solar Wind Drivers," in Solar Eruptions and Energetic Particles, N Gopalswami, R Mewalt and J Tortsi (eds.), Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 185, American Geophysical Union, (2006).

Mazur, J E, J B Blake, P L Slocum and M K Hudson, "The Creation of New Radiation Belts associated with Solar Energetic Particle Events and Interplanetary Shocks," in Solar Eruptions and Energetic Particles, N Gopalswami, R Mewalt and J Tortsi, (eds.), Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 185, American Geophysical Union, (2006).

Kress, B.T., M K Hudson and P L Slocum Impulsive Solar Energetic Ion Trapping in the Magnetosphere During Geomagnetic storms, Geophys. Res. Lett., 10.1029/2005GL022373m 31 March 2005.

Perry, K L, M K Hudson and S R Elkington Incorporating spectral characteristics of Pc5 waves into 3-dimensional radiation belt modeling and the diffusion of relativistic electrons, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 110, No. A3, A0321510.1029/2004JA010760, 2005.

Kress, B.T., M.K. Hudson, K.L. Perry and P.L. Slocum, Dynamic Modelling of Geomagnetic Cutoff for the 23-24 November 2001 Solar Energetic Particle Event, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L04808, 2004.

Hudson, MK., BT Kress, JE Mazur KL Perry and PL Slocum 3D modeling of shock-induced trapping of solar energetic particles in the earth's magnetosphere, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 66/15-16, 1389-1397, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2004.03.024, 2004.

Resonant Acceleration and Diffusion of Outer Zone Electrons in an Asymmetric Geomagnetic Field, S.R. Elkington, M.K. Hudson and A.A. Chan, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1116, 2003.

Hudson, M. K., D. N. Baker, J. Goldstein, B. T. Kress, J. Paral, F. Toffoletto, and M. Wiltburger (2014), Simulated magnetopause losses and Van Allen Probe flux dropouts, Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2014gl059222.

Kress, B. T., M. K. Hudson, and J. Paral (2014), Rebuilding of the Earth's outer electron belt during 8-10 October 2012,Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2013gl058588.

Li, Zhao, M. Hudson, Y. Chen (2014), Radial diffusion comparing a THEMIS statistical model with geosynchronous measurements as input, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 1863–1873, doi:10.1002/2013JA019320.

Li, Zhao, M. K. Hudson, A. N. Jaynes, A. J. Boyd, D. M. Malaspina, S. A. Thaller, J. R. Wygant, and M. G. Henderson (2014b), Modeling Gradual Diffusion Changes in Radiation Belt Electron Phase Space Density for the March 2013 Van Allen Probes Case Study, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 3, doi:10.1002/2014JA020359.

Brito, T., M. K. Hudson, B. Kress, J. Paral, A. Halford, R. Millan, and M. Usanova (2015), Simulation of ULF wave modulated radiation belt electron precipitation during the 17 March 2013 storm,  J. Geophy. Res., 120, 5, doi:10.1002/2014ja020838

Hudson, M. K., J. Paral, B. T. Kress, M. Wiltburger, D. N. Baker, J. C. Foster, D. L. Turner, and J. R. Wygant (2015),  Modeling CME-shock driven storms in 2012-2013: MHD-test particle simulations, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2014JA020833.

Li, Zhao, M. Hudson, B. Kress, and J. Paral (2015), Three-dimensional test particle simulation of the 17-18 March 2013 CME shock-driven storm, Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 14, doi:10.1002/2015gl064627.

Paral, J., Hudson, M. K., Kress, B. T., Wiltberger, M. J., Wygant, J. R., and Singer, H. J. (2015) Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of three Van Allen Probes storms in 2012 and 2013, Ann. Geophys., 33, 1037-1050, doi:10.5194/angeo-33-1037-2015.

Engel, M. A., B. T. Kress, M. K. Hudson, and R. S. Selesnick (2015), Simulations of inner radiation belt proton loss during geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9323–9333, doi:10.1002/2015JA021568.

Li, Zhao, M. Hudson, J. Paral, M. Wiltberger, and D. Turner (2016), Global ULF wave analysis of radial diffusion coefficients using a global MHD model for the 17 March 2015 storm, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 12161966206, doi:10.1002/2016JA022508.

Engel, M. A., B. T. Kress, M. K. Hudson, and R. S. Selesnick (2016), Comparison of Van Allen Probes radiation belt proton data with test particle simulation for the 17 March 2015 storm, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 11,035–11,041, doi:10.1002/2016JA023333.

Li, Z., M. K. Hudson, M. Patel, M. Wiltberger, A. Boyd, and D. Turner (2017), ULF wave analysis and radial diffusion calculation using a global MHD model for the 17 March 2013 and 2015 storms, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, doi:10.1002/2016JA023846.

da Silva, C. L., S. Wu, R. E. Denton, M. K. Hudson, and R. M. Millan. “Hybrid Fluid-Particle Simulation of Whistler-Mode Waves in a Compressed Dipole Magnetic Field: Implications for Dayside High-Latitude Chorus.” Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 122 (2017): 432–48. doi:10.1002/2016JA023446.

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Works in Progress

Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling, an NSF Science and Technology Center: Co-Director for Magnetosphere Modeling; Radiation Belt Storm Probes: NASA satellite and balloon campaign to study the Earth’s radiation belts; on following instrument teams: (1) Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite, (2) Electric Field and Search Coil (EFASC) Suite, (3) Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL)